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OLUKIIKO LWA BAZZUKULU BA BUGANDA

 

OBULANGO

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bw'enju ya Kisingiri ewa Musolooza.

 

 

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KIDIMBO.

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OMUBALA:

Nkerebwe nkulu esima nga eggalira

Olukiiko lwa Buganda lwanjudde embalirira ya buwumbi 7

The Kabaka of Buganda launches a book on Ssekabaka Muteesa II struggles:

Kabaka Mutebi (centre) with Mr Patrick Makumbi (right) and Dr

Kabaka Mutebi (centre) with Mr Patrick Makumbi (right) and Dr Colin Sentongo (left) at the book launch at Bulange in Mengo, Kampala.

PHOTO BY ERIC DOMINIC BUKENYA

BY  ERIASA MUKIIBI SSERUNJOGI


Posted  Friday, May 27  2016

Kampala in the State of Buganda:
Kabaka Ronald Mutebi on Wednesday, 25th May 2016,  launched a book about the struggles of his late father and former Buganda king, Edward Muteesa II, touching on Uganda’s history before and after independence.

The book titled The Brave King, revisits the stories of Muteesa’s exiling, first between 1953 and 1955, and again from 1966 to 1969 when he died in London. The author, Mr Patrick Makumbi, drew from the documents preserved by his father, 99-year-old Thomas Makumbi, who was an official at Mengo, Buganda’s power capital.

“I was very happy to write the preface to this book,” Kabaka Mutebi said, adding: “It will help the readers understand what Kabaka Muteesa went through in those days.”

When Mutesa was exiled in 1953, the older Makumbi, the father of the author, led a team of six Buganda officials to negotiate with the British about the king’s return to Buganda, which was secured in 1955. The other members of the team were Mr Apollo Kironde, Mr Matayo Mugwanya, Mr Amos Sempa, Mr Eridadi Mulira and Mr Ernest Kalibbala.

Kabaka Mutebi, while officiating at the function, called on more people to document what they saw during those days, saying “it is a good thing” that some of those who witnessed or participated in the events are still alive. Muteesa himself wrote about the period in question in his autobiography, The Desecration of my Kingdom, and Kabaka Mutebi’s endorsement of Mr Makumbi’s new book will be seen as an extension of the kingdom’s bid to manage the narrative.

Mr Apollo Makubuya, Buganda’s third deputy Katikkiro, at the launch held at Bulange-Mengo said there have been attempts to misrepresent history by “those who do not like us”.

Accusations and counter accusations of betrayal between Buganda Kingdom and Obote are rooted in a rather happy start, when Buganda’s party Kabaka Yekka (KY) teamed up with Obote’s Uganda People’s Congress to defeat the Democratic Party and form government at independence in 1962.

But the two centres of power soon quarrelled violently and were involved in what many have regarded as a critical turning point in Uganda’s history. The army, on Obote’s orders, stormed Muteesa’s palace on May 24, 1966, killing multitudes and forcing the king-president into exile.

Mr Makubuya said his grandfather was among those killed during the attack, an occasion the kingdom commemorates yearly on May 24. He said in addition to explaining how Buganda and Muteesa suffered during that period, Mr Makumbi’s book will clarify a number of other issues, including how colonialism thwarted Buganda’s development efforts.

He said Buganda stiffly resisted colonialism and the demands of colonial governor Andrew Cohen in particular, to the extent of winning a court case in London against the exiling of Muteesa. In all its efforts, Mr Makubuya said, Buganda was consistently seeking autonomy, and that the kingdom can “never” lose sight of this objective.

Mr Makumbi, the author, said his father could not attend the launch due to old age.

The publication of the book was financed by Dr Colin Sentongo, who said at the launch that KY, which ceased to exist in the 1960s, is the only political party he has ever belonged to.

The fathers of Mr Makumbi and Dr Sentongo met with Muteesa as students at Kings College Budo, from where, Mr Sentongo said, the three men forged a life-long friendship. It is probably much for this reason that Kabaka Mutebi warmed up to Mr Sentongo and Mr Makumbi at the launch.

emukiibi@ug.

nationmedia.com

Fiscal Budget y'Ensi Buganda ebiro bino

Jul 07, 2014

Bya DICKSON KULUMBA

 

OMUWANIKA wa Buganda, Eve Nagawa Mukasa

asomye embalirira y’Obwakabaka bwa Buganda eya 2014/2015 ya buwumbi 7 (7,411,638,600/-) .

 

Embalirira eno eri wansi w’omulamwa 'Okwolesebwa n’Ebigendererwa' egendereddwamu okutumbula enkulaakulana okuli; okumaliriza Amasiro g’e Kasubi ne Wamala, Masengere, okulongoosa Ennyanja ya Kabaka, okussawo etterekero ly’ebyedda, okukulaakulanya ettaka ly’e Kigo ne Makindye 'State Lodge', okuzimba olubiri lw’omulangira Juma Katebe, okuzimba olubiri lwa Namasole, okuddaabiriza embuga z’Amasaza wamu n’okuzimba eddwaliro ly’abakyala.

 

Nagawa yagambye nti ensimbi zino zisuubirwa okuva mu Buganda Land Board, Amasomero, Minisitule ez’enjawulo, mu bupangisa, amakampuni g’Obwakabaka, ebitongole ebigaba obuyambi n’obuwumbi buna okuva mu Gavumenti eya wakati.

 

Ng’ayogera mu lukiiko luno, Katikkiro Charles Peter Mayiga yasabye abantu okutambulira ku kiragiro kya Kabaka eky’abantu okujjumbiro ebifo by’obulambuzi era n'ategeza nti pulojekiti zonna Obwakabaka ze butandiseeko ssi zaakukoma mu kkubo, zirina okumalirizibwa n’olwekyo enkola y’okunoonya Ettoffaali ekyagenda mu maaso kubanga Kabaka ayitibwa mufumbya Gganda n'antabalirira batyabi- ensimbi zikyetaagisa.

 

Olukiiko luno lwetabiddwamu abakiise bangi ddala ne baminisita ba Kabaka nga lwakubiriziddwa, Sipiika Nelson Kawalya eyagambye nti embalirira eno abakiise basaanye okugenda n’ekiwandiiko kino, bwe banakomawo mu lukiiko luno basobole okugiyisa.

 

Omusujja gw’omu byenda
(Typhoid fever) gwesibye mu Kampala, Uganda.
Feb 25, 2015
a
 


Bo abantu mu kibuga Kampala besombye bangi ddala.

Bya HANNINGTON NKALUBO, ERIA LUYIMBAZI NE CHRIS TEBANDEKE

OMUWENDO gw'abalwadde b'omusujja gwa Typhoid ogw'omu byenda] oguzinze Kampala n'emiriraano gweyongera buli lunaku.

Ku nkomerero ya wiiki ewedde abaakebeddwa ne basangibwa n'akawuka k'omusujja guno baweze 170 naye olwa Mmande we lwazibidde nga basoba mu 365.

Kino kitiisizza baddereeva, bakondakita, abasuubuzi n'abasaabaze ne bagamba nti wadde Gavumenti evuddeyo ku bulwadde buno naye tennakola kimala. Abalala balina okutya nti ebyokulya, okunywa n'ebifo bye bagendamu ebyobuyonjo tebinnaba kukyuka bikyali nga bwe bibadde era obulwadde bukyayinza okweyongera.

BADDEREEVA

Ssentebe wa baddereeva e Nakivubo, Mustafa Mayambala yagambye nti gavumenti egezezzaako okulwanyisa obulwadde naye tennakola kimala.

“twetaaga emisomo, mmotoka ya ambulensi okuba okumpi ne ppaaka era bwe kiba kisoboka n'abasawo babasembeze ku ppaaka zaffe balwanyise obulwadde buno.Kizuuse ng'abamu ku baddereeva tebaagala kugenda mu malwaliro era omulala yafudde eggulo,” Mayambala bwe yagambye.

wabula baddereeva bakyagenda mu maaso n'okulya emmere etambuzibwa mu ppaaka, ebibala ebitundibwa, okunywa amazzi agatambuzibwa mu bucupa. Obulwadde buno bwatandikira mu ppaaka ya takisi enkadde ne busaasaanira mu ppaaka endala okuli eya USAFI, Kisenyi, ppaaka empya, mu kizimbe kya Qualicel mu basuubuzi b'omu luggya lwa ppaaka ne mu butale naddala aka Nakasero ne St. Balikuddembe.

Baddereeva be baasooka okutegeera obulwadde buno era we baabumanyira nga bannaabwe bataano bubasse ate ng'abalala 30 bapooca.

Abamu ku baddereeva n'abasuubuzi baasooka kwerumaaluma nga balowooza nti bayinza bannaabwe be babaloga.

EKITONGOLE KYA KAMPALA  CITY COUNCIL

Amyuka omwogezi wa KCCA, Robert Kalumba yagambye nti nga bakolagana ne minisitule y'ebyobulamu, basobodde okwanguyira obulwadde.

‘tutaddewo mmotoka ya ambulansi ku malwaliro ag'enjawulo naddala mu Kisenyi okuyamba abantu abafuna obuzibu. Tuyungudde abasawo abenjawulo okuwa abasangibwa n'akawuka k'obulwadde buno eddagala amangu ddala era bangi balifuna ne bawona,’ Kalumba bwe yagambye.

Yategeezezza nti balondoola nnyo ebyokulya n'okunywa ebitundibwa mu bifo omukolera abantu abangi naddala mu ppaaka za takisi n'obutale. Yagambye nti baludde nga bategeeza bannakampala okwegendereza ebyokunywa n'okulya mu Kampala naye nga tebawulira.

"ebifo bingi omuli kiyosiki tuzze tubiggala naye ng'abamu balowooza nti tubatulugunya kyokka nga tutangira mbeera ya bulwadde ebadde eyinza okugwawo,” Kalumba bwe yagambye.

ABASAABAZE

Ssentebe w'ekibiina ekirwanirira eddembe ly'abasaabaze ekya Passengers Protection association Badru Nyenje yatidde nti embeera y'obulwadde eyinza obutataliza basaabaze. Abamu ku basaabaze bava mu bitundu bya byalo nti bwe batuuka mu ppaaka nabo baagala okugula ebyokunywa n'okulya.

"Abakola ku mutindo batuyambe bakebere amazzi gonna ag'obucupa agatundibwa mu bifo byonna okwetoloola ppaaka n'obutale kubanga agasiga galabika mafu. Bangi bajingirira amazzi ne balowoozesa abaguzi nti malungi ate nga majama. Batuyambe bagakebere ate amalala kkampuni ezimu baziwere" Nyenje bwe yagambye.

AMALWALIRO GA KCCA

Abasawo abasinga babasindise mu ddwaaliro lya Kisenyi Health Centre.

Waliwo erya Kisugu. Naggulu. Kawaala , Kitebi. Kawempe ne Komamboga.

ABAFUDDE

Fred Kato eyali akolera ku siteegi y'e Luzira. 

Jimmy Olando ku Ssembule siteegi.

Diriisa Ssemakula.

Meddie Mutebi ku Bweyogerere.

Jimmy Kijjambu ku paaka enkadde.

SITEEGI EZIKOSEDDWA

Bweyogerere, Luzira, Ssembuule, Kasubi, Namuwongo, Mengo , Nateete, Wakaliga, Nakulabye , Bwaise, Ntebe, Kamwokya, Kikono ne Makindye.

Omusawo ayogedde ku musujja guno

Dr. Jane Ruth Aceng Dayirekita w’ekitongole ekikola ku byobulamu ategeeza nti  “omusujja gw’omu byenda buba bulwadde nga bwegaseemu omusujja naye nga guva ku buwuka obusirikitu obuyitibwa ‘Salmonella Tyhi’. Era buyinza okuva ku kawuka akasirikitu akatera okuleeta omusujja ogwamaanyi. Obuwuka buno buteekebwa mu mazzi oba mu mmere nga muntu yabusaasaanya mu bubi bwe.

Bukwata butya?

Obulwadde busaasaana nga buyita mu kulya emmere oba okunywa amazzi agalimu obubi. Kyandibadde kirungi abantu ne bajjanjabibwa mu bwangu okwewala okusaasaana.

Kiki gavumenti ky’esobodde okukolawo

Waliwo ttiimu y’abantu eteekeddwaawo KCCA wamu ne Minisitule y’ebyobulamu okudduukirira omulanga guno. 

KCCA etaddewo ekifo eky’okufuniramu obujjanjabi ku ddwaaliro lya Kisenyi Health Center IV okukola ku balwadde abakakasiddwa nti babulina

. Era abalwadde abasinga bakolwako ne badda awaka era tebaweereddwa bitanda. 

Ekitongole ekibunyisa eddagala ekya National Medical Stores (NMS) kitadde eddagala lyonna eryetaagisa mu kifo okusobola okukola ku balwadde mu bwangu.

Abasawo ku ddwaaliro lya Kisenyi Health Center IV baatendekeddwa okusobola okukola ku bateeberezebwa okuba abalwadde n’abakakasiddwa okuba abalwadde.

Gavumenti esaba abantu bonna okuteeka mu nkola bino wammanga;

Abantu bonna abalina obubonero bw’omusujja naye ng’eddagala ly’omusujja gw’ensiri teribawonya batuukirire eddwaaliro Kisenyi Health Center IV okufuna obujanjabi okusingawo.

Minisitule y’ebyobulamu eri mu kulaba embeera mu disitulikiti endala bwe kiba kyetaagisa bateekewo ekifo ekirala eky’obujjanjabi.

Abantu bonna basabibwa okukuuma obuyonjo okutangira okusaasaanya. 

Abantu bonna balina okubeera abeegendereza okumanya ensibuko y’amazzi ge banywa n’ebyokunywa. Abantu bakubirizibwa okufumba amazzi ge banywa oba okugateekamu ‘water guard’, n’ebintu ebirala ebyakakasibw

okulongoosa amazzi

Abantu bakubirizibwa okwewala okulya emmere ennyogoga, enva endiirwa zirina okufumbibwa obulungi n’ebibala okubyoza ne bitukula bulungi n’amazzi amalungi.

Abasawo bakubirizibwa okutwala obulwadde bwa Typhoid ng’obumu ku bulwadde obusumbuwa abantu. 

Ennamba z’essimu bbiri ziteekeddwawo okuloopa ensonga eno okuli 0794661095 oba 0794661128 mu KCCA.

Abantu bafuna batya obulwadde buno?

Typhoid musujja gwa mu byenda ogufunibwa oluvannyuma lw’okuywa amazzi oba okulya emmere erimu obuwuka oba enjama.

Abantu abalwadde ennyo basobola okubusaasaanya nga bugenda mu mazzi agaliraanyewo nga buyita mu bubi bwabwe obulimu obuwuka obungi.

Omuntu okulya emmere ennyogoga.

Okulya ebintu nga bijama.

Obubonero bw’omusujja gw’omu byenda

Obulwadde busobola okumala ebbanga lya wiiki 3-4 era ng’obubonero bwe buno; 

•Obutayagala kulya

•Okulumwa omutwe

•Obulumi mu mubiri gwonna

•Omusujja nga guweza 104

•Obukoowu oba obunafu

•Embiro

•Okulumwa mu kifuba/ ekifuba 

ky’omunda

•Obulumi mu lubuto

Bujjanjabibwa butya?

Obulwadde buno bujjanjabwa ne n’eddagala eritta obuwuka buno.

Waliwo n’eddagala erigema abo abatambula. Obujjanjabi bumala wakati wa wiiki bbiri n’omwezi era ng’omulwadde ayinza okusaasaanya wakati wa 50,000/- ne 300,000/- okusinziira ku ddwaaliri ly’aba agenzeemu. 


Amataba gagobye ssentebe mu maka ge
Apr 01, 2015

Era emirimu gy’ekyalo n’abagenyi be abalabira wabweru wa nnyumba anti gy’asiiba. Nobala ssentebe wa Central zooni mu Ndeeba.

Twamuguddeko nga bali mu kaweefube wa kusena mazzi nga bagaggya mu nju ne famire ye.

Agamba nti abantu abatadde ebigoma ebitono mu mwala be baleetedde amazzi okwanjaala mu maka ge.


Okulonda obukiiko bwa LC1 ne LC2 kuli mu lusuubo: Tewali ssente
Dec 23, 2015
Eno ye nonda eya bafuzi, Omufuzi ava e Ruanda owa NRM gyeyaleeta mu Ssemmatteeka gweyateeka mu Uganda.

Bya Muwanga Kakooza

OKULONDA obukiiko bwa LC1 ne LC2  omwaka ogujja kuli mu lusuubo oluvannyuma lwa gavumenti okulemwa okussa mu bajeti y’akakiiko k’ebyokulonda ssente ezimala okukola omulimu guno.

Akakiiko k’ebyokulonda keetaaga obuwumbi 44 okutegeka okulonda kw’obukiiko bwa LC kyokka mu bajeti mulimu obuwumbi musanvu zokka!.

Ssentebe w’akakiiko ka palamenti ak’ebyamateeka, Steven Tashobya (mu katono) ye yategeezezza bino mu lipooti y’akakiiko ke  ekakwata ku bajeti y’omwaka ogujja (2016/17) gye yayanjulidde akakiiko ka palamenti eggulo.

Yasabye wabeewo ekikolebwa okulaba nga gavumenti ewaayo ssente z’okutegeka okulonda kuno kuba ensimbi ezeetaagisa bwe zitaweebwayo eby’okulonda obukiiko bwa LC1 ne LC2 tebijja kusoboka.

 Obukiiko bwa LC buludde nga tebukola kuba abamu ku baabuliko baafa, abalala ne bakyusa ebyalo ng’ate n’obuliwo kigambibwa nti bumenya mateeka kuba buli luvannyuma lwa myaka etaano waliwo okubaawo okulonda ku mitendera gyonna egya gavumenti. Kyokka bwo bumaze emyaka egisoba mu kkumi nga tebulondebwa.

Ebyo nga biri awo n’ensimbi  obuwumbi 12 ez’okusasula emisaala gy’ababaka ba palamenti abapya 70 abagenda okwegatta ku palamenti egenda okulondebwa omwaka ogujja emisaala gyabwe tegiri mu bajeti. Palamenti empya egenda kubaamu ababaka 459. Eriwo erimu ababaka 265.

Abavubuka mwenyigire mu bulimi - Kabaka awadde amagezi.


Dec 08, 2014


Kabaka ng’awuubira ku bantu be ku mbuga y’eggombolola y’e Buwama mu ssaza ly’e Mawokota e Mpigi ku Lwomukaaga ku mikolo gy’Abavubuka mu Buganda.


Bya DICKSON KULUMBA NE PADDY BUKENYA


KABAKA Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II alagidde abavubuka okwongera okwegatta 

beenyigire mu bulimi nga balima ebirime eby’ettunzi okusobola okwekulaakulanya.

Omutanda ng’ali ku mikolo gy’abavubuka mu Buganda ku mbuga y’eggombolola y’e Buwama mu ssaza lya Mawokota mu disitulikiti y’e Mpigi ku Lwomukaaga, yawadde abavubuka amagezi okukozesa ebifo ku masaza ne ku magombolola okukolerako emirimu egy’enjawulo egy’enkulaakulana

n’asiima abatandiseewo emirimu ne bayambako n’abalala okwebeezaawo.

 

Ente Omubaka Kenneth Kiyingi Bbosa (Mawokota South) gye yatonedde 

Ssaabasajja ku Lwomukaaga. 


Kabaka alagidde abavubuka okwekebeza Kabaka yakubirizza abavubuka okwekuuma:


“Omwaka guno tujjukiziddwa ensonga y’ebyobulamu. Abavubuka tusaanye okwekuuma nga tuli balamu, okwekebeza buli mwaka kubanga si kirungi okugenda mu ddwaaliro nga tumaze okugonda ate omuvubuka alina okulya obulungi.”


Katikkiro Charles Peter Mayiga yakunze abavubuka okukozesa emikisa Kabaka gy’abatee

reddewo; mu by’obulimi beekwate BUCADEF n’okuyingira Ssuubiryo Zambogo SACCO.


Omulamwa gwabadde; Omuvubuka omulamu ate nga mukozi ye nnamuziga w’enku

laakulana mu Buganda, era wano Minisita w’abavubuka e Mmengo, Henry Ssekabembe, we yategeerezza nga bammemba ba Ssuubiryo Zambogo SACCO bwe batuuse ku 1,500 nga kati balinawo n’obukadde 285.

 

Abamu ku Baamasaza ku mukolo gw’Abavubuka mu Buganda e Mawokota ku Lwomukaaga.


Omukolo gwetabyeko; ssentebe w’abavubuka mu Buganda, Richard Kabanda, Kayima David Ssekyeru, Katikkiro eyawummula Dan Mulika, sipiika wa Buganda Nelson Kawalya n’omumyuka we Ahmed Lwasa, Minisita Amelia Kyambadde, Omubaka Kenneth Kiyingi Bbosa (Mawokota South) ssaako baminisita b’e Mmengo, abakulu b’ebika n’Abaamasaza.


Abayimbi; Mathias Walukagga ne Fred Ssebbale be baasanyusiza abantu ba Kabaka.


INSIGHT

The first bank in The Ganda Kingdom

By Henry Lubega

Posted  Sunday, March 1  2015 

  

Before 1906, there was no banking institution in Uganda until November of the same year when the national Bank of India opened its first branch in Entebbe, and four years later it opened the first bank in Kampala, although it was later taken up to become Grindlys Bank.

The National Bank of India was followed by Standard Bank of South Africa Limited when on September 19, 1912, it opened its first branch in Kampala. And a few years later it opened another branch in Jinja.

Barclays

Barclays followed in 1927 when it opened two branches in Kampala and Jinja. In 1954 three more banks; Bank of Baroda, Bank of India and The Nedelandsche Handel-Maatschappij M.V (Netherlands Trading Society) opened in Uganda.

According to Saben’s commercial directory and handbook of Uganda, as early as 1949 the banking system had been established in Uganda but did not control much of the financial liquidity that was in circulation across the board in the country.

“Much of the money was controlled in the bazaars and other channels which were predominantly controlled by people of the Asian origin. These people played a key role in the buying of cotton.

However, areas where banks were non-existent, merchants in those areas played the part of the banks. This was through taking drafts in exchange for cash or physical items in exchange for hard cash,” Saben wrote.

By 1950, it was realised that to bring more Africans into the business there was need to provide them with credit. Unfortunately, the commercial banks at the time would not extend credit to Africans because of the nature of their securities.

Under Ordinance number 20 of 1950 the Uganda Credit and Saving Bank was created purposely to extend credit facilities to Africans with the aim of furthering agriculture, commercial building and co-operative society purposes.


On October 2, 1950, the bank was opened and by 1961 it had spread to places like Arua, Fort Portal, Jinja, Soroti, Gulu, Masaka and Mbale, taking only African deposits.

Building Society

Two years later, the first Building Society in Uganda was opened as a subsidiary of a Kenyan owned firm Savings and Loans Society Limited. 

More financial institutions continued to open up in Uganda with Lombard Bank from Kenya, in partnership with Uganda Development Corporation, opening the Lombank Uganda Limited in 1958. It was this bank which first introduced the hire purchase system of shopping in Uganda.


It was not until 1966 that through an act of Parliament that Bank of Uganda was created. Prior to this, issues to do with money were handled by the East African currency board which had its head offices in Kenya.

In daddy’s scientific footsteps: With her 5th degree, Butambala girl lives the American dream:

Written by Joseph W. Kamugisha & Ronnie Mayanja

 Created: 29 May 2012

 

PhD Holder: Dr Sala Nanyanzi Senkayi(centre) and mother(right) and supervising Professor(left)




   Sala and her Daddy.

It is every parent’s dream to see their children grow up and graduate from university.

But often do you meet a five-degree holder, topped off with a Doctorate degree or PhD?

Well, recently the Ugandan community in Dallas Fort Worth not only embraced one, they also welcomed their community’s first and youngest female PhD holder in the names of Dr Sala Nanyanzi Senkayi. It has been a long time coming for the young lady, the daughter of Dr Abu Senkayi (PhD) and Sunajeh Senkayi, having began her humble journey at Texas A&M University, with a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) degree.

She would later pick up two other B.Sc degrees and a Master of Science degree) from the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). And then came her PhD in environmental science from the same University of Texas at Arlington, for which she wrote a dissertation on “Proximity to Airport and Cancer Incidences in Texas”.

Many people will be familiar with the adage that it takes a village to raise a child; that is what many friends and well wishers of the Senkayi family said during Sala’s graduation party. The proud parents could be seen beaming with excitement as speaker after speaker, spoke about their daughter’s achievement.

Emcee Frank Sentamu, added excitement to the evening when he suggested that the two doctors should change their names to Dr Senkayi Senior and Dr Senkayi Junior as a way of separating father and daughter.

The journey that first inspired the young Sala could be traced back to her childhood. According to her father, on the day he got his PhD, Sala ran to the stage, grabbed her Dad’s hat and put it on her own head, as if to suggest that one day she would wear her own. Several years passed but Dr Abu Senkayi did not imagine ever having the pleasure of participating in the hooding process of his only daughter.

The hooding process is normally reserved for the graduate’s major professor, but in one of those rare occasions when a parent of the student is a Doctorate degree holder, the pleasure and opportunity of carrying out this exercise is often passed on to the parent, which in this case was Dr Abu Senkayi an environmental scientist himself.

Sala owes her success to the inspiration and support of her parents, and brother Ali Senkayi, an electrical engineer. She is also quick to mention the collective effort of many other community friends and relatives who encouraged her along her academic journey.

Dr Abu Senkayi, an official Buganda Kingdom representative in North America, also mentioned that Sala had been involved in planning for Buganda cultural activities in Dallas. In 2001, young as she was, Sala played a prominent role during Kabaka Ronald Mutebi’s, visit to Dallas. The same was the case when the Nnabagereka of Buganda, Sylvia Nnaginda, visited in 2005.

The Senkayi family, originally from Kibibi in Butambala, left Uganda in the 1970s and settled in the United States. They visit Uganda regularly and were here only last December, to participate in the Ugandan Diaspora conference the Serena Hotel. Dr Sala is also an active community organizer who spends time going to schools and colleges to talk about Environmental protection.

Besides her commitment to the community, Sala maintains a full time job in the same office block and department with her father, at the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Her EPA mentor proudly noted, during the evening graduation dinner, that Sala is “a very dedicated girl, who takes her job very seriously and devotes a lot of time into everything she does.”

Before Sala joined her father as an EPA employee, the father remembers bringing her to the office on special days when employees are allowed to bring their children to the office. One could say that all this gave the little girl some early inspiration to follow in her dad’s footsteps.

But when asked why she chose environmental science Sala said: “I’m not trying to follow my dad’s footsteps per se, because I like Biology and my dad is a soil scientist. But I also like my dad because he is a cool guy!”

Sala says she enjoys her work environmental protection, and her fellowship in the Ugandan community. “Getting a degree is just part of the story” she says. “Making friends, helping each other, as Ugandan community members to advance each other, is what will help us succeed here in the Diaspora.”

With her five degrees, the single Dr Sala intends to keep her job at EPA, although she could go into academia; and she still cherishes working with children on environment-related programmes.

“I can now say that I’m free at last,” she says. “I have all the time I need to live and enjoy my life.”


Pulezidenti Museveni atunze ente 400 mu lufula y’e Luweero

By Musasi wa Bukedde

Added 15th August 2016


 Pulezidebti ( mu byeru) ng’aggulawo lufula.

PULEZIDENTI Museveni mulunzi era mu kiseera kino agamba nti alina ennume 400 ze yamaze okufunira akatale mu lufula y’Abamisiri ey’omulembe gye yagguddewo e Luweero. Lufula eno yagguddwaawo ku Lwokuna lwa wiiki ewedde.

Pulezidenti yagambye nti ennume zino bagenda kuziggya ku ffaamu ye, bazitwale bazirunde zisobole okutuuka ku mutindo oguvaamu ennyama etundibwa ebweru w’eggwanga. Lufula eno ey’omulembe eyitibwa “Egypt Uganda Food Security Ltd “ ng’esangibwa ku kyalo Nyimbwa mu Luweero, yeesudde kiromita 30 okuva mu Kampala.

Erimu ebyuma ebiri ku mulembe ebikozesebwa okulongoosa ennyama y’ente nga bitandikira mu kusalako omutwe, okubaagako eddiba n’okusala amagumba mu bwangu. Mulimu ebyuma ebiyonja ennyama n’ebyenda n’ebitundu ebirala mu ngeri ey’omulembe . Oluvannyuma ennyama eno egenda kutundibwa ku katale k’ensi yonna .

Lufula eno egenda kusala ente 400 buli lunaku ng’ennyama etwalibwa bweru w’eggwanga. Pulezidenti Museveni we yasinzidde okukunga abalunzi abalina ennume bazirunde mu ngeri esingayo okuba ennungi basobole okuziguza Abamisiri bafunemu ssente eziwera.

Bannannyini lufula eno baatandiseewo ekifo eky’enjawulo mwe bagenda okutendekera abalunzi ku mutindo gw’obulunzi bw’ente ogw’enjawulo ezituukana n’akatale kano.

Lufula eno yaakugaziyizibwa epakirenga ennyama mu mikebe gattako okulongoosa amaliba gakolebwemu ebintu ebiralaDayirekita w’ekifo kino, Sherif El Kallini yagambye nti bagula ekika ky’ente zonna omuli maleeto n’ez’olulyo lwa wano. “Wabula tusinga kwagala ente eriko ebiwandiiko ebiraga ebyafaayo byayo nga birungi era nga tesukka myaka esatu wabula ng’erina obuzito bwa kkiro 300 n’okusingawo.

Zino zivaamu ennyama egonda eyeetaagibwa ku katale k’ensi yonna . Buli kkiro tugigula wakati wa 3,500 /- ne 4,000/.,” bwe yagambye. Omukugu okuva mu yunivasite e Makerere, Denis Asizua yagambye nti ente erundibwa mu ngeri ey’omulembe nga ya nnyama, omulunzi alina okugirabirira obulungi.

Kabaka hails Kampala City Council Authority on city facelift

By Andrew Ssenyonga

 

Added 8th October 2017

 

 

Thekabakaofbugandamuwendamutebiplantsafruittreeatoldkampalaseniorsecondaryschoolatoldkampalaoctober82017 703x422

  The Kabaka of Buganda Muwenda Mutebi cuts a cake with Ssemakkokiro (right) during celebrations to mark the end of community service week at Old Kampala. Photos by Kennedy Oyema

 

 

 The Kabaka of Buganda Muwenda Mutebi plants a tree at Old Kampala Senior Secondary School

 

“I would like to thank the leadership of the city director Jennifer Musisi, which has worked hard to improve the image of the city,” he said.

The Kabaka made the remarks during the celebrations to mark the end of Bulungi Bwansi (community service) at Old Kampala Secondary School in Kampala on Sunday.

“We appreciate that today Kampala is green, streets are clean and there is order in the city,” he said.

Prince Ssemakkokiro listens to his father Kabaka Muwenda Mutebi, during the celebrations

 

Bulungi Bwansi is a cultural and social programme in the Buganda through which communities are mobilised to participate in activities that promote voluntarism within localities.

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Trouble is that many of the traditional Ganda fraternity take this sort of programme for granted there by making the responsible government services inactive.

UGANDA IS IN A POWER TRANSITION QUAGMIRE:

 

President Museveni Has Won So Many Wars But He Might Lose the Succession Battle:

 

1st April, 2017

 

By Simon Okurut

 

This week president Museveni rubbished the succession debate and re   iterated his earlier assertion that it would be discussed at the right time and p probably in the right forum.

A journalist had asked him to respond to his son in-law Odrek Rwabwogo’s insistence that the country needed to resolve the succession question now or never. Odrek had written quite a number of articles which not only criticized the sustainability of the NRM revolutionary project in general but also questioned the working methods of its chairman who also happens to be his father in law, President Yoweri Museveni.

But while he was answering the journalist, he appeared bored to talk about the subject. It was like asking the pope to discuss what happens in the disco. President Museveni has won so many wars but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that he might lose the succession battle.

The Ugandan leader has fought and won wars against nations like Zaire (now DRC), Rwanda and Sudan among others. He fought and defeated presidents like Gen Idi Amin, Apollo Milton Obote, Gen Tito Okello Lutwa, Joseph Mobutu, Juvenal Habyarimana, Omar Bashir, Laurent Kabila etcetera.

In fact while most leaders usually collapse when they venture into wars with their nearest neighbors like Amin who evaporated with the Kagera misadventure, Museveni has managed to survive very many tricky wars his especially the one of Rwanda where over a million people perished in a genocide.

Under normal circumstances, and given the fact almost the antagonist forces that invaded Rwanda where from his NRA contingent, he would have been put on the spot for what happened, but the situation normalized sooner than expected.

He has defeated over forty Ugandan rebel groups that include ADF, LRA, West Nile Bank Front, UNRF1, UNRF2, FOBA, UPDA, UPA, Holy Spirit Movement, PRA etcetera. And in this process he has obliterated notorious rebel leaders like Alice Lakwena, Col. Juma Oris, Col Erick Odwar, Joseph Kony, Herbert Itongwa, Jamil Mukulu, Col Samson Mande etcetera.

He has also overcome so many political challenges that include the lifting of presidential term limits, the return of traditional kingdoms which President Milton Obote had suspended in 1966, the return of Asians that President Idi Amin had expelled from the country in 1972, the Kayunga riots, the numerous political coalitions that have usually ganged up during elections, etcetera.

He has also ‘somehow’ contained  the Buganda question, the Acholi question, the West Nile question, the Lango question, the Obugabe question, the Obusinga question, the Kyabazinga question etc. He has overcome controversial elections of 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016.

President Museveni has also gotten away with quite a number of radical economic decisions that could have led to his downfall like hugely misunderstood currency reform of 1987 where the Ugandan currency was devalued by 30%, the massive privatization exercise, the massive retrenchment of workers, the unforgiving famine and drought that has always ravaged the country almost every two years among others.

The Transition Conundrum

Given the aforementioned challenges, you can now say that the only two issues still standing in his way, which are interlinked in a way, are the lifting of age limit on the presidency which was padlocked at 75 years and the succession question.

Both political questions are interlinked because, one leads to the other in a certain way. That is to say; if Museveni and his group manages to succeed in lifting the age limit, it will certainly prolong the succession question to infinity-perhaps beyond 2026!

If, however, it (the lifting of age limit) doesn’t happen, then he will have the opportunity to settle the succession question as early as 2021 when he will certainly step down. That is exactly what makes the succession debate very interesting.

The other aspect of it is the personalities likely to constitute a group from which he will choose his successor. At the moment, it appears as if even the president himself doesn’t know whom to choose. In the last ten years there have been constant rumors that he was grooming his son, Gen Muhoozi Kainerugaba to take over the mantle when he opts to retire.

But the propagators of that conspiracy theory were shocked when he sacked his son from the relatively influential position of Commander of Special Force Brigade and demoted him to the lesser post of advisor to the president on military operations.

Having decimated, humiliated and rather obliterated the opposition and reduced it to a laughing stock, the source of the next Ugandan leader is one of the biggest challenges of our time. Constitutionally, the pecking order shows that the Vice President is supposed to takeover when the Ugandan president dies, resigns or is impeached.

If any of the above was to happen today, then the less talked about Hon Edward Ssekandi easily takes over as Ugandan President. But how come some Ugandans are asking president Museveni to show them his heir apparent to the throne even when he has a Vice President?

A few years ago it appeared to be an easy subject for the Ugandan president to discuss the retirement question. When he appeared on NTV, he told talk-show host Patrick Kamara that he felt that he wouldn’t continue serving beyond 75 years.

Today, Museveni is 72 years old. And in the next three years, actually in 2020, he will certainly have clocked 75 years mark which he said he would retire. Will he abide by his word this time round? Ugandans have numerously caught president Museveni on the wrong side of his own promises.

He has broken so many promises one of which include, the one he made in 1986 that the problem of Africa was the leaders who cling onto power-which in effect was translated as pledge that he was not going to cling on power like the other selfish African leaders. Then there is another one he made in 2001 that he would not run beyond 2005, the time when his two constitutional terms was due to expire.

Today he has done 31 odd years without feeling tired-according to the vigor he exudes whenever he is challenged to prove his fitness. Well, all you can say is that while the Ugandan leader has overcome so many challenges during his thirty year reign, he still continues to find the succession question as the most challenging, most confusing and most embarrassing subjects.

It is not only a quagmire or a conundrum but it’s like a pendulum that swings from either the positive side to the negative side with unpredictable force.

 

 

 

Olusissira lwa Ssekabaka Mwanga II,Obote ne Amin lwe bayokya e Mengo nga 24 May 1966

Ssekabaka Muteesa II Ow'Ensi Buganda nga Yesimbyewo Okulwanyisa Obufuzi Obw'Obumbula obwa Bungereza.

Click on down:

OMUGANDA A.N. KIMALA NAYE AWANDIIKA KU BUGANDA GYE TWASUBWA BWATI:

Lost Libraries of Timbuktu in West Africa:

mapafricanorthUntil recently, many commentators on Africa claimed that African societies had no tradition of writing. With the rediscovery of ancient manuscript collections, some dating back to the 8th century AD, this perception is changing. 

Approximately 250,000 old manuscripts still survive in modern Ethiopia. Thousands of documents from the medieval Sudanese empire of Makuria, written in eight different languages were unearthed at the southern Egyptian site of Qasr Ibrim. Thousands of old manuscripts have survived in the West African cities of Chinguetti, Walata, Oudane, Kano and Agadez. 

Despite the many dangers posed by fire, floods, insects and pillaging, some one million manuscripts have survived from the northern fringes of Guinea and Ghana to the shores of the Mediterranean. National Geographic estimates that 700,000 manuscripts have survived in Timbuktu alone.

The Timbuktu manuscripts


Around 60 libraries in Timbuktu are still owned by local families and institutions, collections that have survived political turbulence throughout the region, as well as the ravages of nature. A good example is the Ahmed Baba Institute, established in 1970, which was named after the famous 16th/17th-century scholar, the greatest in Africa. 

Ahmed Baba wrote 70 works in Arabic, many on jurisprudence but some on grammar and syntax. Deported to Morocco after the Moroccan invasion of Songhay in 1591, he is said to have complained to the sultan there that the latter's troops had stolen 1,600 books from him and that this was the smallest library compared to those of any of his friends. 

Today, the Ahmed Baba Institute has nearly 30,000 manuscripts, which are being studied, catalogued and preserved. However, during the period of French colonial domination of Timbuktu (1894–1959), many manuscripts were seized and burned by the colonialists, and as a result, many families there still refuse access to researchers for fear of a new era of pillaging. Other manuscripts were lost due to adverse climatic conditions – for example, following droughts, many people buried their manuscripts and fled.

The manuscripts themselves range from tiny fragments to treatises of hundreds of pages.
Four basic types have survived:

  • key texts of Islam, including Korans, collections of Hadiths  (actions or sayings of the Prophet), Sufi texts and devotional texts
  • works of the Maliki school of Islamic law
  • texts representative of the 'Islamic sciences', including grammar, mathematics and astronomy
  • original works from the region, including contracts, commentaries, historical chronicles, poetry, and marginal notes and jottings, which have proved to be a surprisingly fertile source of historical data.



The manuscripts themselves are of special importance to their owners for a number of reasons. For example, many people who are descended from the servile classes but claimed noble descent have been caught out by evidence from the manuscripts. Other manuscripts have revealed the unjust dealings of one family with another that may have happened a long time ago but have a bearing on today, such as in disputed land and property ownership.

It begs the question as to why the worth of these manuscripts been recognised before now. During the colonial period, many of the owners hid their manuscripts or buried them. In addition, French was imposed as the main language of the region, which meant that many owners lost the ability to read and interpret their manuscripts in the languages in which they had originally been written. Finally, it is only wince 1985 that the intellectual life of this region has been revived.


Origins and evolution of Timbuktu


According to the 17th-century historian Abdurrahman As-Sadi, the history of the West African desert region could be divided into the rise and fall of three great empires – ancient Ghana,  medieval Mali and the Songhay empire.

Ancient Ghana


The oldest of the three empires, ancient Ghana at its height ruled territory comprising what we would now call Ghana, Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania, Guinea and Mali, located between two great rivers: the Senegal and the Niger. Timbuktu was founded during the dominance of the Ghana empire, in around AD 1100, by Sanhaja desert nomads, who had a tradition of camping near the Niger in the dry season and taking their animals inland to graze during the rainy season. 

There are several explanations for the origin of the name of the famous city. One account suggests that, while the nomads were away, their belongings were entrusted to their slaves, one of whom was called Buktu. The campsite thus became known as 'Tim Buktu', meaning 'well of Buktu'. What began as a semi-permanent nomadic settlement evolved into town and, ultimately, into a city that, between 1100 and 1300, was a thriving economic centre.

Located at a hub of commercial exchange between Saharan Africa, tropical Africa and Mediterranean Africa, Timbuktu was a magnet that attracted both men of learning and men of commerce. It benefited from the gold trade coming from the southern reaches of West Africa – in the 14th century, approximately two thirds of the world's gold came from West Africa – as well as from the salt trade arriving via the Sahara.

The products that reached Timbuktu included textiles, tea and, later, tobacco. Judging from the number of poems about tea found among the manuscripts of Timbuktu, this was clearly a special commodity. Timbuktu scholar Ahmed Baba gave his approval to tobacco in his On the Lawfulness of Tobacco Usage, in which he claimed that it was neither a narcotic nor an intoxicant! 

However, the most profitable trade items in Timbuktu were books. Buying them was considered a socially acceptable way of displaying wealth and a great source of prestige. For instance, an old Timbuktu chronicle Tarikh al Fettash reveals that the king bought a great dictionary for the equivalent price of two horses. 

Medieval Mali


As the empire of Ghana declined, the Mali empire took its place, founded by the Mandinka-speaking people ruling from their capital Niani (in what is now Guinea). King Sundiata Keita of Mali conquered ancient Ghana in AD 1240, and two generations later, Mansa Musa I turned the Mali kingdom into an empire. Islam became the dominant religion of the Malian cities and Arabic became the language of scholarship.

Described as the 'Latin of Africa', Arabic was useful for communicating between peoples such as the Bambara, Fulani, Hausa, Mossi, Songhay and Tuareg who all spoke different languages. Just as Latin in medieval Europe was associated with Christianity, Arabic in medieval Africa was associated with Islam, and just as Europeans adopted the Latin script to write their own languages, Africans used the Arabic script to write theirs.

In 1999, the BBC broadcast the documentary series Millennium: One Thousand Years of History. The programme on the 14th century opened with the following disclosure: 'In the 14th century, the century of the scythe, natural disasters threaten civilisations with extinction. The Black Death kills more people in Europe, Asia and North Africa than any catastrophe has before. Civilisations which avoid the plague thrive. In West Africa, the empire of Mali becomes the richest in the world.'

There are a variety of ways in which the empire spent its wealth.  The Sankoré University mosque was built in about AD 1300 with funding from a woman of the Aghlal, a religious Tuareg ethnic group. The Sankoré Quarter in north-east Timbuktu became the dwelling place of the scholars and teachers. It was also where the first libraries were created. Scholars and kings acquired books during their travels. They were also bought from merchants coming from the north. Mansa Musa I purchased works on Maliki law. He also ordered the construction of the Great Mosque of Timbuktu in 1326.

There were a number of challenges to Malian hegemony. One came in 1343, when the Mossi attacked Timbuktu. A source says: 'The Mossi sultan entered Timbuktu and sacked and burned it, killing many persons and looting it before returning to his land.' Timbuktu, however, recovered and the Malians continued to rule it for the next hundred years. However: 'The Tuaregs began to raid and cause havoc on all sides. The Malians, bewildered by their many depredations, refused to make a stand against them.' Mali lost control of Timbuktu in 1433.

The Songhay empire


Once a tributary to the Mali empire, the Songhay became independent as Mali declined. Sonni Ali Ber was their first great king, conquering most of what became the Songhai empire and seizing Timbuktu in 1468. The chronicles say he 'perpetuated terrible wickedness in the city, putting it to flame, sacking it and killing large numbers of people'. The gold traders there, fearing that Sonni Ali would take control of their goods and transactions, started businesses in the city state of Kano in what is now northern Nigeria. The scholars of Timbuktu were also treated harshly and many fled.

Subsequent rulers of the Askiya dynasty adopted a gentler approach towards the scholars, offering them cash and privileges, especially during Ramadan. These included slaves, grants of land, and exemption from taxation. Major Felix Dubois, the 19th-century French author of the excellent Timbuctoo the Mysterious, says: 'To ensure them the tranquillity so necessary to a man of thought and letters, their affairs were managed and their properties cultivated by their slaves.'

Timbuktu benefited under the reign of the Askiya kings. According to the Tarikh al Fettash, a 17th-century history of the region:

One cannot count either the virtues or the qualities of [Askiya Muhammad I], such are his excellent politics, his kindness towards his subjects and his solicitude towards the poor. One cannot find his equal either among those who preceded him, nor those who followed. He had a great affection for the scholars, saints and men of learning.

T imbuktu eventually rose to intellectual dominance in the region. In the early days, Walata – 'where the holiest and most learned men resided' – and Djenné had been centres of Islamic scholarship. Djenné had a university that boasted thousands of teachers, and there are reports of surgical operations successfully performed by their medical doctors, such as eye cataract surgery. But by 1500, Timbuktu had surpassed both of these centres. Scholars and students visited it from the entire region, including Saharan and Mediterranean Africa, and there were scholarly connections between Timbuktu and Fez in Morocco. In addition, during pilgrimages, connections were made with fellow scholars in Egypt and Mecca.

According to the Tarikh al Fettash, Timbuktu was described as having: 

…no equal among the cities of the blacks ... and was known for its solid institutions, political liberties, purity of morals, security of its people and their goods, compassion towards the poor and strangers, as well as courtesy and generosity towards students and scholars.

According to Leo Africanus in A History and Description of Africa (c. 1526): 

The people of Timbuktu have a light-hearted nature. It is their habit to wander into town at night between 10pm and 1am, playing instruments and dancing … There you will find many judges, professors and devout men, all handsomely maintained by the king, who holds scholars in much honour. There, too, they sell many handwritten North African books, and more profit is to be made there from the sale of books than from any other branch of trade.

Askiya Daud (r. 1549–82), the fifth ruler of the Askiya dynasty, established public libraries and employed calligraphers to copy books for him, some of which were then given as gifts to scholars. The book-copying industry was well structured and extensive. At the end of each book was stated the title, the author, the date of the manuscript copy and the names of the scribes who copied it. Some books also named the proofreaders and the vocalisers (i.e. scholars who added vowels to Arabic), and often they mentioned for whom the manuscript had been copied, the monies involved, who provided the blank paper, and the dates of the beginning and ending of the copying of each volume. Many copyists wrote 140 lines of text per day, while the proofreaders read 170 lines daily. The proofreader of one particular multi-volume text was paid half a mithqal (1.75–2.5g) of gold per volume  while the copyist received one mithqal (3.5–5g).

Religion

Timbuktu was also a religious city. According to a West African proverb: 'Salt comes from the north, gold from the south and silver from the country of the white men, but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom are only to be found in Timbuktu.' There is a local legend that the city is guarded by 333 renowned saints as well as numerous lesser ones, and surrounding Timbuktu like a rampart are the chapels where the saints are buried. 

According to the Sufis, a saint is a Muslim mystic, usually a scholar, who has achieved such closeness to God as to possess special powers. For example, we read: 'The very learned and pious sheikh Abou Abdallah had no property, and he bought slaves that he might give them their liberty. His house had no door, everyone entered unannounced, and men came to see him from all parts and at all hours.'


The intellectual life of Timbuktu


The Sankoré University mosque was the main teaching venue since many scholars lived in the Sankoré Quarter. Classes were also taught at the Great Mosque and at the Oratory of Sidi Yahia. Most of the teaching took place in the scholars' houses where each had his own private library that he could consult when knotty points of scholarship arose. Very often a student would study under six or seven different tutors, each with a different specialism. 

At the height of the Songhay empire, Timbuktu had 25,000 students. They would pay the lecturers in money, clothing, cows, poultry, sheep or services, depending on how well-off the student's family was. Students might also work in the local tailoring industry to pay for their studies. According to the Tarikh al Fettash, Timbuktu had 26 textile factories where each master tailor employed 50 to 100 apprentices. Employment was restricted to students at a certain level of education. 

Each teacher was expert in a number of texts. This is not quite the same as being an expert in a particular subject. The traditional teaching method involved the lecturer dictating a text of the students. The students would write their own copies and would read back to that lecturer what they had written. All the students would do the same and, in this way, learn from each other's mistakes. Once the correct version had been written down, the lecturer would explain the technical intricacies of the text and engage in discussion with the students.

Among the manuscripts, treatises on pedagogy have survived. Some books tell how to learn to read and improve memory, give suggestions on what subjects should be taught and detail the qualities of an ideal educator. An ideal student was: 

Modest, courageous, patient and studious; he must listen carefully to his professor and have a solid understanding of his lessons before memorising them. The students must learn to debate among themselves to deepen their understanding of the material. They must always have a great respect and a profound love for their teacher, because these are the conditions for professional success.

The curriculum
Ahmed Baba studied Arabic grammar and syntax, astronomy, logic, rhetoric and prosody. Textbooks were purchased and copied on a number of subjects, including astronomy, astrology, botany, dogma, geography, Islamic law, literary analysis, mathematics (including calculus and geometry), medicine, mysticism, morphology, music, rhetoric, philosophy, the occult sciences, and geomancy. 

The works of the Greek astronomer Ptolemy were  basic references for Islamic astronomy. The Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle were also common. The Greek physician Hippocrates was popular, as well as the Persian medical philosopher-scholar Avicenna.

Academic standards of teaching in Timbuktu


The quality of teaching there was as high as in North Africa and the Middle East, and some scholars say it was even higher. A celebrated professor from Hedjaz is reported to have arrived in Timbuktu with the intention of teaching, but after talking to some of the students and seeing their level of learning, he was humbled and decided to become a student himself. 

On graduation. after the students had each received a traditional turban, they had a number of career options. Some lecturers issued licences that authorised their best students to teach particular texts. The ulama or scholars had a variety of roles in Songhay society. Some became judges, others became imams and some became teachers. The rural holy men became parish priests, attending to every part of the lives of their flocks.


Timbuktu books


The documents that have been preserved range from one-page fragments to hundreds of pages – one example cited by John O Hunwick and Alida Jay Boye in their masterly The Hidden Treasures of Timbuktu (2008) is a letter of 482 pages. The Timbuktu manuscripts mainly comprise Korans, Koranic exegesis, collections of Hadiths, writings on Sufism, theology, law and other closely related disciplines. By the 15th century, Timbuktu scholars were producing original works as well as compiling new versions and commentaries on established texts.

There are also commercial documents. These typically begin with the phrase: 'Let all who read this document know ...' followed by the names of buyer and seller, a detailed description of the product, a declaration of the legal validity of the sale, a confirmation that the purchaser paid the price in full and, finally, the name of the drafter and the date. Legal documents also include a statement of the validity of the contract, confirming that the parties were legally competent, free from restraint and in full possession of their mental faculties, and that the transaction was lawful according to Islamic law. They typically end with the phrase: 'Praise to God and blessings upon the Prophet.'

The reading and writing of poetry was important in these cultures. Among the Timbuktu documents are verses devoted to the Prophet and to the adoration of a particular woman or man, and poems about tea. Poetry was written when a person died, to be read at their funeral. Even works on grammar and law were rewritten in verse to facilitate ease of learning.

A number of manuscripts were written in Ajami – Arabic script used to write local languages. There are Ajami manuscripts in Songhay, Wolof, Hausa, Fulfulde and Tamasheq. These texts are concerned with botany, diplomatic correspondence, occult sciences, poetry and traditional medicine.


The end of Timbuktu's golden age


The golden age of Timbuktu came to an end with the collapse of the Songhay empire following the invasion by Morocco, whose sultan Ahmad I al-Mansur had established an alliance with Elizabeth I of England. 

The English agreed to provide the Moroccan military with firearms and men skilled in the use of these weapons. This Arab-European army invaded Songhay in 1591 and destroyed it. The invaders confiscated gold and other resources, enslaved the Songhay scholars – including Ahmed Baba, who was deported to Morocco – and attempted to confiscate Timbuktu's archives. 

With the end of the Songhay empire, the two thirds of West Africa that had previously been under a single authority split into smaller and smaller political units, making the region easy prey for invaders and slave traders.

In 1656, the great West African historian Abdurrahman As-Sadi wrote in his Tarikh as Sudan: 'I saw the ruin and collapse of the science of history. I observed that its gold and small change were both disappearing.'

 

/media/other/30931/thelostlibrariesoftimbuktu.pdf

TALES FROM MUTESA'S PALACE: Arriving to a new life in Buganda (Uganda):

An illustration of Barbara Kimenye’s welcome at the dock in Port

Bell, Luzira, in 1956.

By Barbara Kimenya

Posted  Saturday, September 26  2015 

IN SUMMARY

Adventures. Young and beautiful British-born Barbara arrived at Port Bell by ferry from Bukoba, Tanzania to start a whole new life after her marriage had fallen apart. It is a life that would see her mix with ordinary Baganda and bring her close to their king. In the first part of our serialisation of her unpublished book,Tales from Mutesa’s Palace, she writes about her first days in the country.

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In 1956, we docked at Port Bell in Luzira on a bright morning after a whole night journey across Lake Victoria from Bukoba in Tanzania on a steamer; the trim little vessel that plied Lake Victoria calling at Bukoba, Mwanza and Kisumu as well as Port Bell once a week.

The overnight voyage from Bukoba could have been pleasant, but it wasn’t. While the officers and crew were as trim as ever in their crisp whites, and a fantastic six course dinner was served, the few comfortable cabins had been booked weeks earlier, and the deck was packed solid with workers on their way to the Ugandan sugar plantations.

I was lucky to sleep on a chair, Topha my baby son on my knee, and my elderly Scottie, Shadrach, at my feet. Other travellers sprawled wherever they found space: mostly on the floor.

At first there was an element of fun in the way we were ‘camping’, but the joking ground to a sudden halt after a nun laid herself out on the centre table to sleep, closed her eyes and placed her hands in an attitude of prayer, for all the world like an effigy on a mediaeval tomb. The air of sanctity did for us all.

Eddie and Nancy, a Scottish couple, waited for me on the dock. We had been acquaintances rather than close friends in Bukoba, and it remains a source of wonder to me that they should have done so much to extricate me from the messy marriage breakup. Thanks to them, I was to arrive in Kampala with lodgings and a secretarial job already lined up.

Beautiful city
Kampala was then at the height of its reputation as East Africa’s most beautiful city, as well as the most sophisticated. As on previous visits, I couldn’t get enough of the smart shops displaying goods we only dreamed about on the other side of the lake. It was all a far cry from Bukoba, where the main street was either a stretch of mud or dust, depending on the weather, flanked by rickety wooden buildings housing various general stores.

There was also a victorious atmosphere in Kampala, at least among the Baganda, at the time I landed at Port Bell. Only a few months earlier, October 17, 1955 to be exact, the Kabaka of Buganda, His Highness Mutesa II, had returned from exile in Britain, into which he had been unceremoniously bundled by Governor Andrew Cohen on November 30, 1953 for refusing to accept the British government’s dictates on several important issues.

Eddie and Nancy had arranged for me to board with a retired nurse called Betty, whose rambling old house faced Makerere University. Her only other boarder was an old West Indian lawyer, and the two of them were frequently tight as ticks on pink gins. Betty, from the start, made me, my son and my dog very welcome, and fed us well.

In fact I was so grateful for having come to roost in such homely surroundings, and being sure of a job to go to next day, that on my first Sunday in Kampala, I attended mass at the university Roman Catholic chapel.

Ms Barbara Kimenye. Courtesy photo.

It was an uplifting experience, fully in keeping with my current state of pious thanksgiving. The priest preaching the sermon was particularly inspiring. That Sunday was the only time I was privileged to see and hear him, because a few days later he ran off with a lecturer’s wife.

 

My new job was in a shop on Salisbury Road (now Nkrumah Road) which dealt in paint and iron bars. Betty had found a young sensible Munyoro, Joyce, to look after Topha, so I didn’t have to worry about rushing home at lunchtime. The work could hardly be termed back-breaking, and most of the day was spent in chatting to the customers who were mainly building contractors.

Worklife
Apart from me sitting behind a little-used typewriter, there was a salesman-cum-storekeeper, a porter-cum-messenger, and the boss, a courteous, reserved man who was not very much in evidence, and who ran off with the takings three weeks after I joined his staff. I gradually understood that running off was practically a disease in Uganda.

His replacement was sent from Kenya by our head office. It was one of my first close encounters with a Kenyan white, and suddenly the whole Mau Mau business started to make sense. Within two minutes of Sandy’s arrival in our office/shop, I could have cheerfully killed him.

Short, tubby and as sandy as his name implied, he made a bee-line for the Kampala Club, then strictly Europeans only, in the hope of finding someone who could wangle an invitation to State House for him. He spoke to the salesman-cum-storekeeper and porter-cum-messenger as though they belonged to a species lacking human intelligence, when he was not loudly asserting that all Africans were thieves.

He was so anxious to be rid of me – since I too clashed with his colour scheme – that he went to the trouble of getting me another job with an insurance company which paid almost twice as much. The excuse was “am bringing out a European secretary as my personal aide”!

While I still worked for him, however, we three subordinate staff hated him: not solely for how he viewed us, but because he never missed an opportunity of running down our previous boss to whoever happened to be in the shop. Our sympathies were with the chap who had run away with the takings. We considered that if he had to deal with a head office staffed with the Sandys, he was perfectly entitled to grab what he could and run.

Then I was suddenly, unbelievably pregnant! While trying to explain to Mr Burbridge, the principal immigration officer, why I believed I did not, because of family connections, need a work permit in Uganda, the room swam, there was a weird buzzing in my ears, and the next thing I knew was his secretary pressing a glass of water to my lips. On Mr Burbridge’s advice, I consulted a doctor - and couldn’t believe my ears when the man pronounced me three months pregnant.

It was the most astounding moment of my life. I mean, what are you supposed to do when you’ve made a grand exit, and two months later find yourself carrying the object of your scorn’s baby? I did what I was very good at doing in those days. I tried to put the awkward business out of my mind, in the hope that it would go away.

Meanwhile, staying in town for lunch, and usually eating at a pleasant, cheap restaurant on the Wandegeya side of Kampala Road, I met dozens of Ugandans whom I had known as students frequenting East Africa House behind the Cumberland Hotel at Marble Arch in London. I also made many new friends, regulars at the same place, including the infamous Ted Jones and his Muganda wife, Mary. These two became very special over the years. I missed them when they eventually emigrated to Australia.

Meeting friends
And all these people turned out to be real friends. Most of the old ones from the East Africa House days introduced me to their families and were there with help whenever they thought I needed it. Foremost in this respect was Joe Zake, newly-established as a practising lawyer in offices in a rickety wooden building.

He took me in hand, made me face up to the fact that another baby was on the way, whether or not I liked it, and found a house at a rent I could afford, £5 a month, to be precise, below the Roman Catholic cathedral on Rubaga Hill. He then supplied such essentials as a paraffin stove, some sufurias, and a bread knife which survived long enough to go with my youngest son when 20 odd years later he went to Aston University.

Apart from the need to-learn to stand on my own feet, if I was determined to make the separation from my husband permanent, a further reason for leaving Betty was that her house bordered a swamp, and Topha went down with a hideous attack of malaria.

It was a shock, after running down to Mulago hospital in the middle of the night with a screaming child, to be told by the Ugandan doctor that I ought to have taken the baby to the European Hospital (former Ugandan Television studios in Nakasero). Only when I argued that my son was fathered by a full-bloodied African, and that he had been delivered by an African doctor (Dr Matwale, later director of medical services, Tanzanian govt) was Topha given treatment.

Earlier, it had never entered my head that a colour bar operated in a place as liberal as Uganda. There was a great deal of mixing going on all over the place, practically everywhere. But whereas my Ugandan friends accepted me without question, officialdom seemed to have a problem reconciling my half-tone colour with my British accent. In other words, officialdom, or the people wielding it, did not know where or to whom I belonged.

Moving to Rubaga hill
Shadrack, my Scottish Terrier, died shortly before we left Betty’s place. He caught tick fever, and, being an imported dog, was past saving before it was diagnosed. He was nine years old, and losing him was the saddest of happenings. There was slight consolation in knowing that the year and a half he spent in Africa, after my mother flew him out to me in what was then Tanganyika, were probably the best of his life. It had been a time of wanderings in huge gardens, investigating strange smells and creatures, and never being shut up for hours on end in a stuffy London flat. Still, I missed him as I had never before missed anybody.

The house we rented from a true gentleman called Peter Sendikwanawa, a rich landowner who lived in Masaka, lay across the valley from Lubiri, the Kabaka’s palace, and must have been one of the earliest Western-type buildings in Buganda. It stood in about an acre of neglected garden, and was approached by a gravel drive flanked by gnarled frangipani trees.

A wide verandah enclosed six large rooms which led directly into one another: in the old days, the Baganda didn’t believe in wasting space on passages, although they never seemed to count the cost of extra doors. It seemed enormous to Joyce and me; and the fact that there was no electricity or running water, and that the outside lavatory was in a state of collapse was the least of our worries.

We soon got used to going together to relieve ourselves, so that if either of us disappeared down the pit latrine, the other could run for help. We moved into the house with a bed each, a cot for Topha, and a few packing cases draped in curtaining for seats. There was no need to curtain the windows since they had shutters. And in next to no time our household expanded to include a short, black, wire-haired dog, one of whose parents must surely have been a Scottie, who the neighbours called ‘Puppy’, but who we promptly named ‘Mzee’.

Mzee really did not belong to anybody, and everybody fed him, but he slept on our verandah and we felt that gave us rights of ownership.

Then Alex, a Munyarwanda water-carrier, who used to bring us three or four 4-gallon cans of water twice a day, on a heavy wooden barrow, and charged us five cents a can, quietly moved into a tumbledown mud and wattle outhouse which Joyce said was supposed to be our kitchen.

Extra hands
He slid onto our payroll with equal discretion. First he started tidying up the garden, and gradually the most delicate and attractive floral arrangements in jam jars decorated every room. Next he took on the washing of the floors, and produced a rich gleam which we never suspected they possessed.

But Alex really made his mark when he changed his ragged shorts and vest for a snowy white kanzu and red fez, and took to welcoming visitors at the door with great dignity. The contrast between his style of welcome, and their having to sit on packing cases, was like Claridges’ doorman ushering guests into a roadside cafe.

I was able to pay him a salary because around the same time that Alex attached himself to us, I went to work for the insurance company where the work was interesting, my colleagues friendly, and of course the pay worthwhile.

Looking back on this period of my life, I still see it as the happiest ever. Money was tight, but we ate. I walked an average of four miles a day, there and back to work. Yet I don’t recall ever feeling frightened or miserable, or even exceptionally tired.

I was exhilarated every time I entered that frangipani lined driveway, and saw Joyce on the verandah with a spruced up Topha and the teapot at the ready. It was a great day when I came back from the city with ‘Toro’ chairs for the three of us,(Toro chairs were made of a vegetable fiber and tree branches, and cost about five shillings each). I have since been in a position to buy more conventionally smart furniture, but none of it has generated so much pleasure.

Dog tales
It was her idea that we should bath Mzee, for, as she pointed out, the old dog carried ticks the size of grapes and, judging from the way he scratched, was a walking home for hundreds of fleas. Somehow we managed to throw him into a bowl of disinfectant, but he went wild – snapping and howling, and drenching us in his attempt to escape. Afterwards, he disappeared for a week, then he came back as lousy as ever. We never tried bathing him again.

Our Baganda neighbours were amused by this performance. Most of their little mud and wattle houses were screened by matooke plantations, so we didn’t see much of each other, but we often met on Rubaga Road leading to the cathedral, or on the main track running along our side of the hill. They had, of course, heard Mzee’s terrorised yells, and some had seen him, soaking wet and wild-eyed, tearing through the bushes.

They thanked Joyce and me for trying to clean the old dog – really because the Baganda customarily have a very gracious way of giving thanks for everything and anything, but couldn’t resist making a few sly jokes at our expense. One old man said bluntly that we were lucky not to have been bitten, and told us to leave well alone if we didn’t want to catch rabies.

Accommodative neighbours
The nicest thing about our neighbours was their quiet acceptance of other people’s oddities as commonplace, which may be why, as I soon discovered, Rubaga had more than its fair share of unusual characters.

Mr Macken, for instance, an Irish Catholic lawyer, who lived a spartan life on the other side of the hill, took his dogs for a walk at exactly the same time every evening, and seemed to spend more time in church than the White Fathers who manned the cathedral. He was very taciturn where women were concerned. A greeting from any of us was acknowledged with a grunt and the avoidance of eyes.

My next door neighbour, Miriam Daly, also Irish, contended that he [Macken] thought we all wanted to tamper with his virtue.... It was well known that Mr Macken had been doing the First Fridays for years: i.e. taking Holy Communion on the first Friday of each of nine months to ensure receiving the Last Sacraments on his deathbed. We were all naturally perplexed when the poor man dropped dead at the roadside, on his way to fulfil yet another set of First Fridays.

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